Anatomia da apis mellifera. 7, views Learning to Write a Syllabus. Online Course – LinkedIn Learning · Insights from a College Career Coach. Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Apidae) between and . 1 d. Gliindulas anexas ao aparelho de ferrao das abelhas, anatomia e histologia ( Hyme-. 11 mar. Aspectos morfológicos e anatómicos da abelha. Apis mellifera. A atividade quimica na organização e defesa da colónia. Anatomia externa.

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Comparative anatomy of the male reproductive internal organs of 51 species of bees. Abdalla I ; Warwick E. Melliferz Engenheiro Diniz n o. The anatomy of the internal organs of the male reproductive apparatus MRA of adults and pupae was compared among 51 species of bees, including representatives of six families. Four different types of MRA were found.

The type I is present in males of the less derived families Colletidae, Andrenidae, and Halictidae and is characterized by three seminiferous tubules per testis, which are almost completely enveloped by the scrotal membrane. The type II is an intermediary between types III and I and is present in Melittidae and Megachilidae, as well as in some Apidae studied, being characterized by post-vesicular deferent ducts outside the scrotal membrane and by three or four seminiferous tubules per testis, except for Apis mellifera L.

Type III was only found in the Apidae studied and is characterized by separately encapsulated testes and genital ducts except for the post-vesicular deferent duct. Accessory glands are well developed, and the ejaculatory duct is thickened with fissures in its wall, which may also occur in the type II.

Type IV is present exclusively in the tribe Meliponini, and is characterized by the absence of accessory glands. Accessory gland, genitalia, morphology. Foram obtidos quatro tipos diferentes de ARM. The male reproductive apparatus MRA of insects is constituted by a pair of testes connected to aedeagus through the genital ducts. The testes are formed by a variable number of solid filaments, known as seminiferous tubules. The seminiferous tubules are separated from one another by interstitial tissue; and individually encapsulated by a peritoneal membrane.

The tubules are enveloped, as a group, by a scrotal membrane or capsule, forming a globular structure Cruz-Landim Inside these tubules, spermatogenesis proceeds in synchrony within the cysts. Thin and short prolongations, known as efferent ducts, arise from the extremity of each seminiferous tubule and join in a single common duct, the deferent duct, which show apical dilation that forms the seminal vesicle, dividing the deferent ducts into a pre- and post-vesicular portion.

The male reproductive apparatus of most insects possesses accessory glands, the mesadenial or ectadenial glands, which open at the deferent ducts or at the ejaculatory duct, respectively SnodgrassChapman In Apis mellifera L.

In this species, as in most insects, spermatogenesis occurs during the pupal stage, and the testes display their maximum development between the 5 th and the 6 th day of pupation Bishop Therefore, in newly emerged adults, the testes are already undergoing degeneration, appearing as yellowish flat bodies Snodgrass Yet it is only around the 12 th day of adult life that a drone is mature for mating Snodgrasswhen all the spermatozoa is contained in the seminal vesicles and ready to be ejected in the female during mating Bishop There are few comparative studies concerning to the male reproductive apparatus in bees, especially on solitary and stingless species.

Therefore, it was done a comparative anatomical study of the internal genital organs of adult males of 51 bee species. Pupae of males of Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier, and Tetragonisca angustula Latreille were also analyzed.

The internal genital organs of males of 51 bee species, belonging to six families, were studied Table 1. All the specimens were adults, except for the species Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier and Tetragonisca angustula Latreille.

The species were identified by Prof. After removing the genital organs in saline solution, these were schematized under a stereomicroscope with aid of a Zeiss Winkle camara lucida. The results allowed separating the 51 species of bees studied into at least four types of organization of the male reproductive apparatus MRA.


Comparative anatomy of the male reproductive internal organs of 51 species of bees

Type I was found in almost all species studied of the families Colletidae except for Tricholletes venustus SmithAndrenidae, Halictidae, and Megachilidae except for Anthidium manicatum L. It is characterized by testes, seminal vesicles, and genital ducts totally or melliera encapsulated by the scrotal membrane, and forming a globular unit Fig. In all species, two portions compose the accessory gland: This later portion usually presents anatomic variation among the species.

The accessory gland loops can be developed Fig. It is characterized by very long post-vesicular deferent ducts that are located outside the scrotal membrane Fig. The remaining internal organs of the MRA, except for the ejaculatory duct and the accessory glands, also form a globular unit encapsulated by the scrotal membrane, which may be elongated Fig.

In this type, the accessory glands are generally well developed Figs. Mellifeera ejaculatory duct is thicker, and, in some species, it may even present a complex pattern, such as longitudinal fissures Figs. In the Megachilidae there are three seminiferous tubules per testis Fig. In the Apidae with MRA of the Type II, the seminal vesicles differ only slightly from the pre- and post-vesicular deferent ducts, and the post-vesicular ducts open at the final opens at the final portion of the accessory glands, next to the ejaculatory duct Figs.

In the Megachilidae and Melittidae, these ducts may open at the same site as seen in the Apidae Figs. Each contains one testis and one seminal vesicle Fig.

As in type II, the post-vesicular deferent ducts are not encapsulated. The accessory glands are well developed Fig. With the exception of Xylocapa Fig. In the Type III, the seminal vesicles are easily distinguishable from the deferent ducts by being longer and thicker and because they are folded inside the scrotal membrane, forming a globular unit Fig.

Type IV is similar to Type I, but it is only found in all meliponines studied. It is characterized by the absence of the accessory glands and by seminal vesicles that is much thicker than the deferent ducts Fig. The post-vesicular deferent ducts are joined and open directly at the ejaculatory duct, which is short and simple Fig. The MRA of A. It is characterized by a ais high number of seminiferous tubules, about per testis Louveaux The species that belong to the phylogenetical intermediate families, Melittidae and Megachilidae, and some species of Apidae, presented Type II, which showed intermediate or transitional anatomical characters.

Whereas the tendency in the other families is towards a higher development of the accessory glands, separation of the units encapsulated by the scrotal membrane and an increase sizing and complexity of the ejaculatory duct, the meliponines are characterized by the disappearance of the accessory glands and a general simplification of the genital ducts, including the outer genitalia.

Excluding the meliponines, and considering Type I as the ground plan of MRA, the first major modification of the MRA was the increased development of the accessory apix, which mellifefa already be observed in some representatives with Type I. The second modification was an increase in the number of seminiferous tubules per testis, or their widening, as well as an elongation of the post-vesicular deferent ducts.

Next, there is a displacement of the opening site of the post-vesicular duct, tending to be nearer the ejaculatory duct, as well as an increase in the length and diameter of the ejaculatory duct. The meliponines differ from the other bees by the loss of the accessory glands. In the rest of their characteristics however, they share anatomical elements with Type I, such as those present in Colletidae, which have very filiform accessory glands with a very small dilation portion.

The greater development of the seminal vesicles may be an adaptation to the increase in the number and length of the seminiferous tubules and the absence znatomia the accessory glands in stingless bees.


Apparently the tendency of the male reproductive tract of bees was towards an mellifrra in number and length of the seminiferous tubules, which must have resulted in an increased number of spermatozoa production.

There was also an increase in distance between the testes and the rest of the internal organs due to the elongation of the post-vesicular deferent ducts, increased production of accessory gland secretion, and a spermatozoa releasing closer to the ejaculatory ducts. In Xylocopacontrary to the observed in the other genera, the seminiferous tubules are straight and short, unfolded. This condition may be related and compensated by the continued spermatogenesis that extends into the adult life stage.

The function of the accessory glands is not well known in bees. Since mating has an effect on vitellogenesis, or on the maturation of oocytes in the ovary of insects ChenColeman et al.

After this period, the number of protein bands in electrophoretic gels reduce, when at eight days old drones is present only three dominant polypeptides. In solitary species, such as Anthidium maculosum L. A thicker ejaculatory duct allows a higher adhesion to the female during copulation, in addition, the secretion of the accessory glands increases even more the diameter of the ejaculatory duct at the moment of mating and might serve, as in Bombusas a plug that prevents the reflux of sperm or even improves the viability of the sperm posterior to mating BishopSnodgrass The similarity of the MRA of meliponines to that of the basal solitary bees is not the only similarity between these two groups of bees.

As in most solitary species, the queens of meliponines seem to mate with a single male Peters et al. Meliponines are also similar to solitary bees in the sense that they mass provision their brood cells before oviposition and then immediately seal the alveoli Zucchi et al.

Contrary to the solitary bees, however, the meliponine queen produces a much higher number of eggs and is long lived. Therefore, there appears to be a selective pressure towards and increased production of spermatozoa by the meliponine males, thus showing a larger size of the testes. Taking into account the possibility that the accessory gland secretion inhibits further matings, the absence of these glands in meliponines might be explained by the species being monoandric.

Alternatively, the remainder of the ruptured male genitalia in the female tract may function as a plug.

Thre reproductive behavior of Anthidium maculosum Hymenoptera: Megachilidae and evolutionary significance of multiple copulations by females. Fertilization in the honeybee. The male sexual organs: Their histological structures and physiological functioning. The functional morphology and biochemistry of insect male accessory glands and their secretions. A Drosophila male accessory gland protein that anatmoia member of the Serpin superfamily of proteinase inhibitors is transferred to females during mating.

Protein content and pattern during mucus gland maturation and its ecdysteroid control in honey bee drones. Organization of the cysts in bees Hymenoptera, Apidae testis: Number of spermatozoa per cyst. Ultrastructure of the ducts of the reproductive tract of males of Melifera bicolor Lepeletier Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini. X-L’appareil reproducteur du male. The bees of the world. Baltimore, The John Hopkins Univ. The embryology of the honey bee. Anatomy and physiology of the honey bee.

Mate number, kin selection and social conflicts in stingless bees and honeybees. The rarity of multiple mating by females in the social Hymenoptera.

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On the cell provisioning and oviposition POP of the stingless bees nomenclature reappraisal and evolutionary considerations Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponine. All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Services on Demand Journal.

Material and Methods The internal genital organs of males of 51 bee species, belonging to six families, were studied Table 1.